Agile & Scrum Resources

Here's a sampling resources & references for Agile, Scrum, and innovation in general.

Table of Contents (alphabetical)

Agile Definition

Agile Overviews/Summaries

Agile History

Alternatives to Agile/Scrum



Bugs & Defects

Case Studies







Course References (Found.)

Course References (Dev)

Course References (A-CSM)

Design Thinking


Engineering Practices





History of Agile/Scrum


Innovative Orgs


Lean Startup




Organizational Structure


Problem Solving



Process Efficiency, Utilization, & Effectiveness

Queuing Theory


Remote Teams


Scaling Scrum

Scrum Guide(s)

Scrum Outside Software

Social Justice


Systems (Thinking & Mapping)






User Stories

User-Story Splitting



Agile Definition

Full Definition of agile as an adjective
1: marked by ready ability to move with quick easy grace
//an agile dancer
2: having a quick resourceful and adaptable character
//an agile mind

Overviews & Summaries of Agile & Scrum

Manifesto for Agile Software Development [Since 2001, a key reference for values & principles of Agile Software Development]

The Scrum Guide [The definitive summary by the two co-creators of Scrum.]

Definitions of Scrum

Learn More About Scrum , Video (1:20) by the Scrum Alliance, with 30-sec text summary.

Scrum Roles, Video (2:40) by Michael del la Maza.

Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, by the Scrum Alliance. Video approx. 35min.


Core Scrum Summary by the Scrum Alliance

The Scrum Primer

Scrum and XP from the Trenches, by Henrik Kniberg

Scrum Framework in 10 Minutes Lyssa Adkins

Scrum Pattern Community [Tags: patterns Description: Common optional practices commonly added by high-performance teams. See especially Sutherland's, "A Pattern Language for Hyperproductivity", for a list of common patterns.]

History of agile Behavior Before and After the Agile Manifesto in 2001

Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History by Craig Larman and Victor R. Basili


500 BC - (2500 years ago) Strategy Circle. A strategy is not a linear process. It's a circle of continual learning & adaptation. The Art of War, by Sun Tzu

384–322 BC - (Aristotle) - Scientific Method: Question -> Hypothesis -> Prediction -> Experiment/Testing -> Analysis

1879 by Thomas Alva Edison - first commercially practical incandescent light. Some historians claim there were over 20 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Edison’s version, including Humphrey Davy 1902. Edison made 2774 attempts before settling on the bamboo filament that was a commercial success

1930s — Walter Shewhart, a quality expert at Bell Labs, proposes a series of short “plan-do-study-act” (PDSA) cycles, for quality improvement.

1931 - Empire State Building. 13 months from first steel beam to open to public. "... a single value-driven process signalled Empire State Inc.’s commitment to an adaptive, iterative approach, in which efficiency of practice was facilitated through ongoing intercommunication between working groups, enabling elimination of waste in relation to materials, work structure and man hours."

1940s, quality guru W. Edwards Deming began vigorously promoting "plan-do-study-act” (PDSA) cycles.

1943 - Lockheed Martin’s Advanced Development Programs. (Skunkworks) Jets: U-2 and SR-71 Blackbird, etc. [See Kelly Johnson's Rules:]

1950's — The X-15 hypersonic jet applied incremental and iterative development.

1950's - OODA Loop, cycle: observe–orient–decide–act, developed by military strategist and United States Air Force Colonel John Boyd. Boyd applied the concept to the combat operations process.

1956 - Polaris Submarine Project by American Military

1958 — Project Mercury (NASA) software development, ran with half-day iterations. Test-first.“All of us, as far as I can remember, thought waterfalling of a huge project was rather stupid, or at least ignorant of the realities.” — Weinberg G. M., Manager of Operating Systems Development in the Project Mercury (1959–1963), which aimed to put a human in orbit around the Earth

1959 _ PDCA (plan–do–check–act or plan–do–check–adjust) is an iterative design and management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.[1] It is also known as the Deming circle/cycle/wheel,

1970 Waterfall drawing in article by Winston Royce. He actually states he agrees instead with incremental and iterative development. Even in its very first article in 1970, “Managing the Development of Large Software Systems” (PDF), he states: "STEP 3: DO IT TWICE - If the computer program in question is being developed for the first time, arrange matters so that the version finally delivered to the customer for operational deployment is actually the second version insofar as critical design/operations areas are concerned.

1970s — Light Airborne Multipurpose System (US Navy). 45 one-month iterations. “Every one of those deliveries was on time and under budget” — Mills H. “Software development should be done incrementally, in stages with continuous user participation and replanning and with design-to-cost programming within each stage.” — Mills H. (1976)

1970s - Barry Boehm proposes “Wideband Delphi”, a forerunner of Planning Poker

1972 — The USS “Trident” Ohio submarine command and control system, developed by IBM FSD. More than 1 million lines of code. Four 6 month iterations.

1972 — Army Site Defence missile tracking software. $100 million project, developed by TRW in 5 iterations.

1975 - Mythical Man-Month, Fred Brooks, advocacy of prototyping.

1976 - Junit like tool, automated testing, A series of articles by D. Panzl describing tools with features closely resembling those of JUnit attest to the long history of automated unit testing

1977-1980 — Space Shuttle (NASA) avionic software. 17 iterations over 31 months (8 weeks average).

1980s — Artificial intelligence researchers used Lisp machines and evolutionary prototyping.

1984 — PMP certification first offered by Project Management Institute (PMI)

1987 — Command and Control Processing and Display System Replacement, developed by TRW in 6 time-boxed iterations.

1980s — The DoD was experiencing a project failure rate of 75% in a sample of waterfall project of about $37 billion overall, where only 2% of them were used without extensive modification. At the end of 1987 the DoD changed its policies to allow iterative development.

1984 – Theory of Constraints. Physicist Eliyahu Goldratt formulates the Theory of Constraints. ...

1984 - PMI offers Project Management Professional (PMP)

1986 - Spiral Model, Barry Boehm in his 1986 paper Barry Boehm, "A Spiral Model of Software Development and Enhancement".

1986 - "scrum" term first used as a metaphor for cross-functional teams working throughout the production development cycle. "The New New Product Development Game" HBR by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka.

1988 - Lean Manufacturing (and back into the 1930's in Japan)

1991 - Rapid Application Development (RAD)

1992 – Crystal. Alistair Cockburn invents the Crystal Methods.

1993 – Refactoring. ...

1993 - Scrum pulled together. (Public in 1995)

1994 - dynamic systems development method (DSDM)

1994 — The DoD was still victim of the waterfall mindset, developing too much using waterfall and so Paul Kaminsky issued a report stating: “DoD must manage programs using iterative development”.

1995 – Pair Programming. ...

1995 – Scrum. Presented at OOPSLA conference. by Sutherland and Schwaber

1996 - PMI produced the first Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

1996 - "Agile Competitors and Virtual Organizations: Strategies for Enriching the Customer", book by by Steven L. Goldman, Roger Nagal, Kenneth Preiss

1990s, latter half, public awareness of iterative in software development was accelerating. Hundreds of books & papers were promoting it as their main or secondary theme. Dozens more iterative methods sprang forth. Increasing trend to time-boxed iterations of one to six weeks.

1996 - Extreme Programming (XP) used on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3)

1997 - Feature Driven Development (FDD)

1999 – eXtreme Programming (XP). ...

1999 – Continuous Integration. ...

2001 - Agile Manifesto. 4 values and 12 principle common to popular lightweight-iterative methonds. The name "Agile" was inpsired by from a book on Hardware Companies

2001 - Scrum Alliance non-profit founded to promote Scrum

2001 - "Agile Software Development with Scrum" book by Ken Schwaber and Mike Beedle

2002 - Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) certification first offered by he Scrum Alliance

2003 - Rational Unified Process (RUP)

2003 - lean software development originated in a book by the same name, written by Mary Poppendieck and Tom Poppendieck

2007 - scaled agile framework (SAFe)

2008 - LeSS, Scaling Lean & Agile Development: Thinking and Organizational Tools for Large-Scale Scrum

2009 - The Scrum guide document published by Sutherlan and Schwaber

2010 - Kanban Software Development, David Anderson (Note the word kanaban has other meanings as a sign in Japanese, a way to visualize workflow, etc.)

2011 - PMI-ACP, PMI Agile Certified Practitioner (PMI-ACP)

REFERENCES for Agile History

"Agile Isn’t New, It’s Just Common Sense Rebranded" by Martyn Puddephatt Oct 30, 2018

"Kelly Johnson's 14 Rules and Practices"" as used in Lockheed Martin's Advanced Development of U-2, SR-71, Blackbird, F-22 Raptor."

"A brief history of agile methods"", BY DAVIDE 'FOLLETTO' CASALI

“Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History” by Larman and Basili, IEEE 2003

Iterative and Incremental Development: A Brief History by Craig Larman and Victor R. Basili

Humor (Cartoons, jokes, comedy)

The Problem With Software Development [Cartoon, swingset]

Course References (Found)

Scrum_ For any project or product development effort — Scrum Alliance [video 1:20]

How New Relic Engineers Chose Their Own Teams and Projects, Jun 27, 2016 [video 1:44]

01 - Scrum Theory - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019 [Video 5:46]

02 - Scrum Values - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 3:15]

03 - Cross Functional and Self-Organizing Teams - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 1:41]

04 - Scrum Roles - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019 [Video 2:39]

05 - Scrum Events - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019 [Video 3:34]

06 - Sprint Planning Meeting - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 7:34]

07 - Daily Scrum - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 3:40]

08 - Sprint Review - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:35]

09 - Sprint Retrospective - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:25]

10 - Scrum Artifacts - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:25]

11 - Product Backlog - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:15]

12 - Product Backlog Refinement - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:20]

13 - Sprint Backlog - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 2:32]

14 - The Increment and Definition of Done - Scrum Foundations eLearning Series, Scrum Alliance, Jan 23, 2019, [Video 1:58]

Debt Metaphor [by Ward Cunningham aka "Technical Debt"]

The Scrum Guide (Current)

The Scrum Guide: Revision History

Product Goal of Scrum by jeff Sutherland

Product Goal & Sprint Goals – A Simple Example, by Simon Kneafsey, Feb 1, 2021

Agile Product Ownership in a Nutshell by Henrik Kniberg, Oct 25, 2012 "This is basically a 1 day product ownership course compressed into 15 minute animated presentation. There's obviously more to product ownership than this, so see this is a high level summary."

Motivation by Dan Pink 10:47 RSA Animate - Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us.

Course References (Dev)

Little's Law by Bruce Miyashita [video 5:07][tags: queuing, queues, lean, waste]

"Lean Simplified - Value Stream Mapping - Patient Scheduling" [video 4:55][tags: queuing, queues, lean, waste]

An Example of Redwork and Bluework | David Marquet Explains DOING and THINKING for a project | 387 [Valuestream Mapping example, not called that]

Process Efficiency – Adapting Flow to the Agile Improvement Effort [article][tags: scrum, lean, agile, flow]

Simon Sinek Be the Last to Speak [video 1:38] (Speaking last honors the ideas of others and gives you more info before you speak last.)

Swarming 101: An Agile Way To High-Performing Scrum Teams by Jeff Sutherland

Pair Programming: 7 Habits of Highly Effective Coders [video 5:38]


Rally Race Co-driver Arguing[video 5:59][tags: pairing, collaboration]

Splitting User Stories - Agile Practices by Mark Snead [Video 8:40] [Keywords: User Story, User Stories, story splitting, split]

Naming as a Process by Arlo Belshee [article][1. Get Obvious Nonsense; 2. Find What it Does; 3. Split into Chunks; 4. Show Context; aka --> intent, domain abstraction]

"Fast Test, Slow Test" by Gary Bernhardt [video 18 min + Q&A][tags: unit test, micro test, TDD, system tests, testing]

7 Code Virtues Explained by Tim Ottinger 23 Sep 2020 [working, unique, simple, clear, easy, developed, brief]

One Page Intro To Microtests | Video [6:04] by Mike Hill

TDD & The Lump Of Coding Fallacy | Video [9:04]

Readability And Scannability by Mike Hill article

Physics of Test Driven Development by James Grenning article

TDD Guided by ZOMBIES, James Grenning [tags: unit testing, microtesting, simple]

Strangler Pattern Example from Shopify [nice simple diagram]

Strangler Pattern Diagram by TechTarket. [Strangler Fig Pattern for Rewriting Legacy Programs, originally by Martin Fowler. Nice diagram for OO]

Continuous Integration Demo (Git repo local -> CircleCi (automated) -> Github + email notifications on error) by Michael Kelley Harris

Continuous Delivery Demo with feature flags, automated tests and deploy via Github Actions by Michael Kelley Harris: web page:

Continuous Delivery by Dave Farley [CI, CD, BDD, DevOps, TDD] http://

Problem Solving

An excellent collection of Fermi problems for your class. [Fermi problems, estimation]

fermi_questions_handouts_and_lesson_plan.pdf by Kansas State University Math [fermi problems, problem solving, estimation, modeling]


How To Calculate Your Carbon Footprint by Just Energy. [factors for calculating footprint]

Stopping Climate Change: A Practical Plan 3 Tons Carbon Dioxide Per Person Per Year [3 tons/person is sustainable. US avg 17.1 tons/person]

Course References (A-CSM)

A-CSM Learning Objectives of the Scrum Alliance

History on Scrum/Agile Resources [On this web page]

Alternatives to Agile/Scrum (Extreme Programming (XP), Kanban, Silicon Valley)

ICF Core Competencies

What Is Emotional Validation? [validating emotions, statements, invalidating]

Scrum Framework in 10 Minutes Lyssa Adkins

What is the Tuckman Model? [1:50][Forming/Storming/Norming/Performing]

Video Review for the The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A Leadership Fable by Patrick Lencioni [3:17][not based on research][Absence of trust; Fear of conflict; Lack of commitment; Avoidance of accountability; Inattention to results]

Onora O'Neill: What we don't understand about trust [9:50 TED talk] [Trustworthiness: competence, honest, reliable]

Team performance curve. [Katzenbach/Smith][Article with graphics]

Team Performance Curve. [Katzenbach/Smith], by Praxis Framework [scroll to 2/3 of the way down the page]

Product Goal of Scrum by jeff Sutherland

Product Goal & Sprint Goals – A Simple Example, by Simon Kneafsey, Feb 1, 2021

The Scrum Guide

Root Cause Analysis [1:58] [and Five Whys]

Root Cause Analysis: Building A Simple Cause & Effect Chart [3:30]"

Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) [1:43 skipped ahead 57 sec]

Agile Retrospectives: Sail Boat Retrospective [4:43]"

The Scrum Guide Revisions

LeSS Complete Picture, 3-minute introduction to Large Scale Scrum [3:00]

Scrum At Scale - A Message from Jeff Sutherland [1:11]

Introduction to Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) [2:51] [bird flock murmuration]

What Is Complexity Science? by Santa Fe Institute [2:03]

When is a system complex? [3:24] [complexity stance vs simple[

Kotter's 8-Step Change Model [2:20]

Richard Thaler - Nudge: An Overview [1:40]

ADKAR – Change Management | The Thought Bulb [3:00]

Satir Change Model by Joshua Kerievsky [3:35]

Scrum's Five Values: Commitment, Focus, Openness, Respect, and Courage"

Feedforward: Coaching For Behavioral Change, Marshall Goldsmith, [video 7:30 min]


Three Items: Jeff Sutherland: How to Avoid the Most Common Scrum Pitfalls. Video 3:30

Nine items: Scrum: The Nokia Test by Jeff Sutherland Video 6:13

Nokia Test. aka Scrum But ... test

Scrum Checklist by Henrik Kniberg, Crisp (One-page Summary)

An Example Checklist for ScrumMasters by Michael James. [Be a great ScrumMaster]


Software in 30 Days: How Agile Managers Beat the Odds, Delight Their Customers, And Leave Competitors In the Dust... by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland

Scrum The Art of Doing Twice the Work in Half the Time, by Jeff Sutherland and JJ Sutherland

Agile Project Management with Scrum by Ken Schwaber

Succeeding with Agile by Mike Cohn

Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adkins

Agile Retrospective by Esther Derby and Diana Larsen

"Think Like Amazon: 50 1/2 Ideas to Become a Digital Leader", by John Rossman, Book, Apr 29, 2019

Trillion Dollar Coach: The Leadership Playbook of Silicon Valley's Bill Campbell by Eric Schmidt , Jonathan Rosenberg, et al., book, Apr 16, 2019 [he coached Steve Jobs, Jeff Bezos, Google leadership, Al Gore, and mor]

"How Google Works", by Eric Schmidt and Jonathan Rosenberg, book, Mar 21, 2017


"Embracing Agile", by Darrell K. Rigby, Jeff Sutherland, Hirotaka Takeuchi, HBR May 2016

"How Amazon Became Agile" by Steve Denning, Forbes, June 2, 2019

"How Amazon Tames The Budget", by Steve Denning, Forbes, June 2, 2019

"The New New Product Development Game", by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, Harvard Business Review January 1986
[Key Reference with great examples of iterative development of complex products, by self-organizing teams. Hardware examples. This article was a key influence on Jeff Sutherland. The term "Scrum" came from this article.]

"How to Tell If a Company Is Good at Innovating or Just Good at PR", by Scott Anthony, DECEMBER 18, 2015, HBR [Tags: Innovation]

The mob rules, ok?" by Steve Tooke, Dec 21, 2015 [Tags: mob programming, remote, Cucumber]

"Yahoo's Engineers Move to Coding Without a Net", By Tekla Perry, Dec 11 2015 [Yahoo. "What happens when you take away the quality assurance team in a software development operation? Fewer, not more errors, along with a vastly quicker development cycle."]

"Proof That Positive Work Cultures Are More Productive" by Emma Seppalakim Cameron, in HBR, Dec 1, 2015

A Metric Leading to Agility (Running Tested Features), by Ron Jeffries

We Tried Baseball and Didn't Work, by Ron Jeffries


Scrum Alliance (non-profit, support & certification) (for profit, different certification)


Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) certification info

Scrum Alliance Certifications


Jeff Sutherland: Who Should Be Using Scrum? 1:22

Jeff Sutherland: How to Avoid the Most Common Scrum Pitfalls 3:30

Scrum: Jeff Sutherland Breaks Down the Structure of Scrum 5:36

Getting the Organization to Buy Into Agility - It's All About Leadership, by Jeff Sutherland, Video 1:48

Scrum: Jeff Sutherland Discusses His Vision for Scrum 2:59

Scrum: The Nokia Test by Jeff Sutherland 6:13

Scrum: Going from Done to Done-Done by Jeff Sutherland 1:43

Scrum: What does it mean to be Ready-Ready? by Jeff Sutherland 3:30

Scrum: Inside the Sprint Retrospective by Jeff Sutherland 2:29

Scrum: Inside the Scrum of Scrums by Jeff Sutherland 2:55

Jeff Sutherland: How to Avoid the Most Common Scrum Pitfalls

Scrum Basics: What Is the Product Backlog Review in Scrum? Retrospective by Jeff Sutherland

Scrum Basics: What Is the Scrum Daily Meeting? by Jeff Sutherland

The ScrumMaster - How to Develop a Team, by Marcel van Hove 7:21

a funny Scrum Master movie with Jeff Sutherland

Spotify Engineering Culture part 1 (Agile Enterprise Transition with Scrum and Kanban)

Spotify Engineering Culture part 2 (Agile Enterprise Transition with Scrum and Kanban)

"The Backwards Brain Bicycle - Smarter Every Day 133" 7:57 [Wonderful example of knowledge not being equivalent to understanding, and how long it takes to integrate & understand new knowledge, even when simple.]

"The Context for Agility", by Peter Green, July 29, 2015 8-minute video that ties together Lean, Agile, Lean Startup, and Laloux's work on Reinventing organizations.

Agile Product Ownership in a Nutshell by Henrik Kniberg, Oct 25, 2012 "This is basically a 1 day product ownership course compressed into 15 minute animated presentation. There's obviously more to product ownership than this, so see this is a high level summary."

Motivation by Dan Pink 10:47 RSA Animate - Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us.

Frederic Laloux's Revinventing Organizations presented in 9:21 min video by Peter Green

Cost of Delay Intro by Black Swan Farming, video 2:27

How to run a company with (almost) no rules by Ricardo Semler. TED talk. 21:42 video (Right in line with Laloux's Reinventing Organizations.)

Nordstrom Innovation Lab: Sunglass iPad App Case Study. See how the Nordstrom Innovation Lab created, tested and built an iPad app in just one week. 6:42

"The Process (a.k.a. Designing The Stop Sign Video)" video 4:28

Test Your Awareness: Do The Test 1:08

Fearsome All Blacks haka - Rugby World Cup 2015 final v Australia

The New Zealand national men's rugby union team, officially nicknamed the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, which is regarded as the country's national sport. The All Blacks are three time winners, and current holders of the Rugby World Cup, having won the inaugural competition in 1987, then won consecutive titles in 2011 and 2015, and are the 2015 World Rugby Team of the Year. They have won over 76% of their test matches and are the leading test match points scorers of all time. Their win ratio puts them amongst the most successful teams of any sport in history.

Formula 1 Pit Stop 1950 vs 2013. (67 seconds versus 2-3 secs) [Swarming example]

"Silicon Valley" HBO Comedy, S01E05 scrum scene 2:50 (CAUTION: Contains some language that some people may find crude or offensive)


It would be nice if we were good at predicting. It would make it easier to plan and reduce risk. Unfortunately, on average, even experts often get it wrong. Here are some examples.

15 Worst Tech Predictions Of All Time

The absolute worst technology predictions of the past 150 years

Bugs & Defects

List of software bugs

History's Worst Software Bugs

4 of the Worst Computer Bugs in History

1 of the most costly software errors in history By Nick Harley | Posted Feb 5, 2021

What’s the Worst Software Bug in History?

Why Cutting Costs is Expensive: How $9/Hour Software Engineers Cost Boeing Billions by Eric Elliott Jun 29, 2019

Misc: Tesla Lockout; Facebook Shutdown (+ WhatsApp, Instagram)

Case Studies

Google AdWords Team(s) [This is my favorite case study in terms of the gradual invited experiments.] "Ssh! We are adding a process." Mark Striebeck, Google Inc.

Scrum@Scale Case Studies [Tags: Scrum at Scale, Scale]

Agile Project Development at Intel: A Scrum Odyssey by Pat Elwer, Intel Corporation, Reduced cycle time by 66% and eliminated schedule slip within a year,

List of 30+ Case Studies on

List of Case Studies, compiled by Look Forward Consulting

List of 16 Case Studies, compiled by Version One

List of 14 Case Studies, compiled by Agile Pain Relief

PayPal's Agile Transformation Story, by Kristen Wolberg [305 teams, Two Laws: 1) 2-week sprints; 2) All work is in Rally], PayPal's Agile Transformation

Case Study: How Bottomline Reached for the Top -- and Got There with Scrum

Critical Success Factors for Agile Project Management in Non-Software Related Product Development Teams, Jeff Totten, Western Michigan University, Dec 2017

Agility in Construction - How combination of Lean, Agile, Kanban and Scrum is used in construction.

"What I learned About Agile from a Construction Company" ("In my experience, construction companies do very good scrum... and they've never heard of it.")

See also Government.

Banking Case Studies in Agile Transformations - A Sampling

[Including: PMorgan Chase, Capital One, ING, Barclays, Wells Fargo, Westpac One, BBVA Compass, Tangerine Bank]

"Agile Development Is Reshaping Tech at Banks Like Chase and BBVA", American Banker, 2016

ING: Transformation at ING (A): Agile, Harvard Business School Case Collection.

"ING Bank Case Study: Improving time to market from 13 weeks to Less than 1 week with DevOps and Cont" Video:

Barclay's Retail and Banking agile transformation

PayPal's Agile Transformation Story, by Kristen Wolberg [305 teams, Two Laws: 1) 2-week sprints; 2) All work is in Rally], PayPal's Agile Transformation

Capitol One: "How Capital One went from one agile team to expanding devops enterprise-wide"

"How Capital One Became A Leading Digital Bank"

How Wells Fargo Leverages Technology to Deliver A+ Service

ME(Bank): Fragile to Agile - Case Study: ME (Bank) Transformation Program Video:

"Westpac One. Westpac is a major New Zealand bank serving over a million customers...""

"How to Become an Agile Bank"

"Fortune 100 financial corporation specializing in credit cards, loans, banking and savings products, acquired an online retail bank in the US... Results: 1) An average of 200% improvement in Team's Speed, Productivity, and Quality; 2) One line of business reduced cycle time from 18 months to 6 weeks; 3)Scaled to multiple Lines of Business / teams"

"Standard Bank Standard Bank Speeds Time-to-Market by 23X after Adopting SAFe"


[tags: government, tax payers] See also "Case Studies" section of this page.

California Department of Technology's Understanding Agile Guide

FBI Sentinel Project [Virtual Case File (or VCF), officially abandoned in January 2005, having turned into a complete fiasco for the FBI. $575 million dollars wasted on the first two attempts at the project. Scrum Studio was set up in the basement of the Hoover Building. Staff reduced from 400 to 40, and in 1 year and $30 million, they were code complete, at a cost savings of more than 90 percent]

FBI Sentinel Project, Full Case study, Sutherland's book:

FBI Sentinel Project, Thomas Friend presentation 2017:

Case Study: Agile Government and The Department of Justice [450,000 web pages, 100 individual DOJ offices, gradual migration, As planned, the first version release of one site section was accomplished on budget, within four months.]

Adopting Agile Methods in the Public Sector: A Systematic Literature Review

"Agile Procurement in Practice Webinar" [tags: government, State of California]

"Agile Acquisitions: Rethinking Public-Sector Purchasing" [tags: government, california, washington, montana]

Scaling Scrum with Multiple Teams

[tags: Descale, Scaling frameworks, Scrum@Scale, LeSS, SAFe, Nexus, descaling]

Scrum is inheritently scalable in a fractal way. Where useful, you can add coordination activities. e.g. Scrum of Scrum meetings or permanent Scrum of Scrum teams to assemble sub pieces or components.

Evolve gradually: Start simple. Add formal coordination only as useful.

Descale first: Consider first descaling the product & org as much as possible into autonomous teams, value streams, independent product line/division. That simplifies dependencies, coordination, approvals. Visualize an entrepreneurial/intrapreneurial unit. I'd be happy to help you get there.

Scrum@Scale Framework by Jeff Sutherland. Includes ways to scale the product prioritization and ways to scale the development teams, plus leadership's role in impediment removal. See the brief guide. Scrum@Scale is endorsed by the Scrum Alliance. I'm trained in this and happy to help you.

Scrum@Scale Case Studies

Large Scale Scrum (LeSS) by Craig Larman. LeSS is endorsed by the Scrum Alliance. I'm trained in this and happy to help you.

Large Scale Scrum (LeSS) Case Studies

There are other scaling frameworks with additional insights and controversy. SAFe, Nexus, etc. Happy to discuss with you.

The Scrum Guide(s)

The Scrum Guide and revision history 2010

The Scrum Guide 2020 web

The Scrum Guide 2020 pdf

The Scrum Guide Revision History

Scrum Outside Software

[tags: schools, legal, lawyers, sales]

"Scrum Outside of Software", list of links by Mark Levison [tags: sales, non-software, non-it, cars, schools, homework, lawyers, house remodel, radio show, etc.]

"How Visual Systems Make It Easier to Track Knowledge Work" by Daniel Markovitz, Harvard Business Review, 9/24/2015, [tags: Lawyers, legal, knowledge work, non-software, non-it]

"Non-IT Kanban Implementation at Scale" by Gene Gendel,

Lean in the lawfirm by Stephen Reed, 6/5,2012 [tags: Lawyers, non-it, non-software]

User Stories

User Stories: "Essential XP: Card, Conversation, Confirmation", by Ron Jeffries, Aug 30, 2001, [Keywords: User Story, User Stories]

User Story/Stories: "The Short Short Story" by Paul Dupuy. [Keywords: User Stories]

User Stories - Earn 1 PDU, by Mike Cohn. (Video: 52:08)

Agile User Stories, by Mark Shead. (Video 6:51)

Impact Mapping - Visualizing impacts of your software with a demo with Astah (video 4:09)

How to Write Good User Stories (video 3:51)

Story and Example Mapping Mashup (video 1:47)

User Story Splitting

Splitting User Stories - Agile Practices, Video 8:40, Mark Shead [Keywords: User Story, User Stories, story splitting]

Quick Reference Guide for Splitting User Stories, Agile Learning Labs [Keywords: User Story, User Stories, story splitting]

Story Splitting Cheat Sheet, Humanizing Work [Keywords: User Story, User Stories, story splitting]

The Humanizing Work Guide to Splitting User Stories by Richard Lawrence and Peter Green. [Keywords: User Story, User Stories, story splitting]

Making sense of MVP (Minimum Viable Product) – and why I prefer Earliest Testable/Usable/Lovable by Henrik Kniberg, 2016 [Definition of done, Iterative, Incremental]

Estimates & No Estimates

"Value, not Scarcity, not Estimates", by Ron Jeffries

"The NoEstimates Movement", by Ron Jeffries

"Estimation: The Best We Can Do", by Ron Jeffries

Games & Exercises

Tasty Cupcakes

Agile Jeopardy

CardZinga - "a fun activity to introduce empirical process control, inspection & adaptation, and self-organization in a memorable and interactive way." by Victor Bonacci [Alternative to the Ball Point Game]

Retrospective Games Sailboat, speed car, starfish, mad sad glad, flying kite, turn the table, fish bowl, thinking box.

Consultancy: Clients, Vendors, and Contracts

Agile Contract List by Mark Levison by Agile Pain Relief

Agile Contracts by Tom Arbogast, Craig Larman, and Bas Vodde

10 Agile Contracts book by Peter Stevens

Consultancy Scrum: Making Agile Work for Clients and Vendors

Agile Contracts Abstract, Scaled Agile Framework. (SAFe)

Agile Contracts per SAFe lit

Agile Contracts -- Can we make them possible?, Andrea Provaglio, June 1, 2013

Remote Teams Distributed Teams

THE DISTRIBUTED SCRUM PRIMER, Version 1.0 by Pete Deemer


5S Lean Practices plus Safety. (5S is the system developed in Japan during their industrial explosion to make manufacturing facilities, warehouses, and other facilities more efficient and safer)

As The Golden Gate Bridge Was Built In 1933, Its Engineer Installed A Genius Life-Saving Feature [search for Dangerous Duty section]

Engineering Practices

Naming as a Process by Arlo Belshee [article][1. Get Obvious Nonsense; 2. Find What it Does; 3. Split into Chunks; 4. Show Context; aka --> intent, domain abstraction]

Continuous deployment in 5 easy steps by Eric Ries, March 30, 2009

Continuous Deployment at Instagram ["...we deploy our backend code 30-50 times a day... whenever engineers commit changes to master... with no human involvement in most cases. ..."]

Deployment Infrastructure for Continuous Deployment [at Wealthfront, Palo Alto]


"The five keys to a successful Google team", JULIA ROZOVSKY, ANALYST, GOOGLE PEOPLE OPERATIONS NOVEMBER 17, 2015

"What Google Learned From Its Quest to Build the Perfect Team" -- New research reveals surprising truths about why some work groups thrive and others falter. By CHARLES DUHIGG, New York Times Magazine, FEB. 25, 2016

"Psychological safety and learning behavior in work teams", Amy Edmondson, Harvard University, Jun 1999,,%20ASQ%201999.pdf

"The Management Secret That Makes SNL's Chaotic Writers Room Succeed" by Charles Duhigg, 12/19/2016, Fast Company [Lorne Michaels shares how he's harnessed his team's "collective intelligence" for over 40 years. "As long as everyone got a chance to talk, the team did well." "Lorne Michaels . . . abides by two rules: he gives everyone a voice, and he forces people to really listen to each other."]

"New Research: How Employee Engagement Hits the Bottom Line" by Tony Schwartz, Harvaed Business Review, NOVEMBER 08, 2012 [Tags: leadership, teams, motivation, engagement]

Leadership Evolves Amid Tech Changes - Equifax, P&G, Liberty Mutual embrace digital tools; managers shift toward shorter development cycles By ANGUS LOTEN AND JOHN SIMONS Jan 3, 2017, Wall Street Journal (WSJ)

Transformation and Change

Kotter's 8-Step Change Model, by John Kotter, Prof at Harvard Business School

Leadership: From Management to Leadership

Leadership Explained in 5 minutes by Simon Sinek [consistency of small steps]

Feedforward: Coaching For Behavioral Change by Marshall Goldsmith

The Servant as Leader, by Robert K. Greenleaf, 1970 essay [Leadership, servant-leader, servant leadership.] Essay copy

The Servant as Leader, by Robert K. Greenleaf, 1970 essay excerpts [Leadership, servant-leader, servant leadership.] Essay excerpts

Ken Blanchard - One Minute Manager [Video 6:01. Leadership, belief, servant leadership.]

Alan Mulally - Working Together [video: 40 min. CEO of Boeing and Ford, One slide of key principles of Working Together]

Marshall Goldsmith re Alan Mulally and Ford [plus Situational Leadership, video: 14 min]

The Elusive Agile Enterprise. How the Right Leadership Mindset, Workforce and Culture Can Transform Your Organization. Forbes Insights study, surveyed more than 1,000 C-level executives from around the globe and from a range of industries.

"Turn the Ship Around!: A True Story of Turning Followers into Leaders", by L. David Marquet. He has a book, a TED talk, and some video snippets. Here's one: Inno-Versity Presents: "Greatness" by David Marquet [video 9:47]
and a shorter one:
David Marquet - Turn The Ship Around [video 3:09]

Leadership Nudges with David Marquet [Very good very brief examples of leadership thinking and behavior. Main YouTube page index to the nudges.]

The Ladder of Leadership Simplified - Leadership Nudge #326, David Marquet

The Ladder of Leadership Explained - Leadership Nudge #272, David Marquet

Be a "Know, Don't Tell" Leader - Leadership Nudge #327, David Marquet

"Know, Don't Tell" and the Ladder - Leadership Nudge #328, David Marquet

How to Source Suggestions from a Reluctant Team Member Leaders should always have the phrase “What do you recommend?” at the ready. by David Marquet [ladder of leadership, delegation]

"It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy", by D. Michael Abrashoff. He has a book, some longer videos, and some video snippets. Here's one:
Motivational Keynote Speaker MIKE ABRASHOFF: It’s Your Ship [video 3:04]

"Team of Teams: New Rules of Engagement for a Complex World", by Stanley McChrystal, retired from the U.S. Army as a four-star general after more than thirty-four years of service. His last assignment was as the commander of all American and coalition forces in Afghanistan. Video Snippet: Gen. Stanley McChrystal on leadership strategy "Team of Teams"[video 6:30]

Simon Sinek Be the Last to Speak [video 1:38] (Speaking last honors the ideas of others and gives you more info before you speak last.)

Simon Sinek Why good leaders make you feel safe (edited) 3:11 [Leadership, safety]

The best leaders do not set goals. Here’s what they do instead by Marcus Buckingham March 29, 2019 [Tags: Leadership, meaning, purpose]

A retired general and Navy SEAL on how to be a true leader during the coronavirus outbreak By General Stan McChrystal and Chris Fussell, CNN, March 15, 2020 [Tags: Leadership, communication, meetingsS]

Simon Sinek || Performance vs. Trust

Google Says The Best Managers Have These 10 Qualities, by Zack Friedman, Forbes Aug 30, 2018

Organizational Structure

Structural Change at ING a la best tech firms. (350 9-person teams) Brief article, by Plutora consultancy, "Agile and DevOps are failing in Fortune 500 companies.", Apr 2019, "...ING reorganized into 350 nine-person teams called squads comprised of marketing specialists, product and commercial specialists, user-experience designers, data analysts, and IT engineers. ING’s squads aren’t just self-sufficient from software development and delivery standpoint; they are also self-sufficient from a business and management standpoint...."


The Science of Influence, by Lorraine Aguilar, NVC expert, video 27:19

Coaching. Agile Coaching. Professional Coaching. Coaching Models

Cherie Silas to ScrumMasters: "Add Coaching Skills to Your Agile Toolkit" at KAA2016

Path to Coaching video course by the Scrum Alliance

IC Agile Learning Roadmap for Agile Coaching

Coaching Agile Teams by Lyssa Adkins. (book)

The Road from Project Manager to Agile Coach - 1 of 2

Mentoring vs Coaching: Show Me the Difference - Lyssa Adkins at Agile 2015

Coaching Models

GROW Coaching Model

Co-Active Model (Coaches Training Institute (CTI))

Organization Relationship Systems Coaching (ORSC)

Stakeholder-Centered Coaching (per Marshall Goldsmith)

International Coaching Federation (ICF)

OSKAR Coaching Model, by Michael de la Maza. 7:42 minutes

Sustainability, Climate Change, Social Justice, Diversity

Sustainability Innovation Lean for NGOs, climate change. Case Studies

How Learn Agile and DevOps thinking and practice can accelerate the global response to Climate Change, by Steve Bell. Video [1:16:56]

Five Saturdays providing students to learn STEAM-based skills

Agile for Humanity creates space for conversations about social injustice, agility, technology, and leadership.


"The principle of science, the definition, almost, is the following: The test of all knowledge is experiment. Experiment is the sole judge of scientific 'truth.'” -- Richard Feynman, Physicist

"Make something. See it work. Make something else. See it work. Over and over. This is constructivist learning. Kay to Piaget and even further back." -- Ward Cunningham, early thoughtleader in agile/XP, software patterns, inventor of the wiki.

“It is not the strongest of species that survive; nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the most adaptable to change.” — Charles Darwin

“Intelligence is the ability to adapt to change.” -- Stephen Hawking, Astrophysicist

“The lust for certainty is the most damaging thing that humanity has. It’s what drives people to take rigid stances, and it’s in that rigidity that so much violence occurs…” — Adam Frank, Astrophysicist, Into the Light (film)

“the way to subvert the dominant paradigm is to have more fun than they do and make sure they know it.” ― Jason F. McLennan, Zugunruhe: The Inner Migration To Profound Environmental Change

"I did then what I knew how to do. Now that I know better, I will do better." -- Maya Angelou

New Compassionate Tech Values: Ego->Humility; Elitism->Inclusion; Competion->Cooperation; Being "Smart"->Learning; Being A "Rockstar"->Being A Mentor; -- April Wensel

Hardware Applications, Principles, Case Studies

Hardware examples of using Scrum. Scrum Inc Articles by Jeff Sutherland, Joe Riddle, etc.

"The New New Product Development Game", by Hirotaka Takeuchi and Ikujiro Nonaka, Harvard Business Review January 1986 [Key Reference with great examples of iterative development of complex products, by self-organizing teams. Hardware examples. This article was a key influence on Jeff Sutherland. The term "Scrum" came from this article.]

How to Bring an Agile Approach to Hardware Development Dylan Swartz / 27 Jan 2020 [IoT, mobile, OTS Hardware

TEDxRainier - Joe Justice - WikiSpeed

Wikispeed Car Case Study in the Harvard Business Review:

Keynote REConf 2017 Joe Justice: Scrum: Disrupting the Automotive Industry

10 principles of Extreme Manufacturing, by Peter Stevens, [hardware]

XM Principle 3: Test-Driven Development, by Peter Stevens, [hardware]

XM Principle 5: Iterate the Design, by Peter Stevens, [hardware]

The Story of Tesla, by Peter Stevens, by Elon Musk [hardware]

Innovative Organizations

What Silicon Valley "Gets" about Software Engineers that Traditional Companies Do Not

How Big Tech Runs Tech Projects and the Curious Absence of Scrum

Lean Startup

How to Build a Lean Startup. 2 Minutes to See Why, by Steve Blank

Lean Startups: MVPs and the Importance of Learning, Eric Riss, Video 3:30

Design Thinking

How It Works: Design Thinking [IBM Design Thinking, Agile Development], by IBM Thinking Academey, video 5:51

Process Efficiency, Utilization, & Effectiveness

	 	Process Efficiency value-added work time divided by clock time. (per Jeff Sutherland)

	 	Process Efficiency – Adapting Flow to the Agile Improvement Effort. Most Scrum teams 5-10%. Lean teams > 25%.

	 	misconception.  "We  assume that  high efficiency is  achieved  by maximizing the utilization of all the parts. ...

	 	Process Efficiency fits well with teams that focus  on Throughput  Maximization,  instead  of  Resource Utilization  Maximization.  As  desired  side  effects, Process Efficiency promotes swarming [9] and doing detailed  analysis  on  the  waste  in  the  development process"

Process Efficiency in Scrum – Why it Matters and How to Measure it


Queuing Theory

Queuing Simulations and Calculators:

Queing Theory Videos related to work volume and wait time

Little's Law by Bruce Miyashita [5:07]

Examples with math:


Google Sheets & Docs (Simple. Build your own light saber. Link a sheet item to a doc, or a bookmark in a doc.)

Jira agile project management tool

Mingle agile project management tool

Pivotal Tracker agile project management tool

Rally agile project management tool

Version One agile project management tool





ScreenHero [Tags: remote collabration, mob programming, remote, pairing]

i done this (Small daily wins, and status reporting)

JIRA Jr. Project Tracking... for Kids!

Planning Poker [tags: on-line, distributed teams, free]

Fun Retrospectives: Activities and ideas for making agile retrospectives more engaging. (aka Fun Retro) [tags: on-line, distributed teams, free]

RetroTool: Remote Retrospectives; Simple. Fun. Flexible.

Drawing Tools used by Henrik Kniberg: Artrage (drawing program), Wacom Intuos 5 (drawing tablet), Screenflow (screen & audio capture).

Meetups, Conferences, meetings

Silicon Valley Agile Leadership Network Meetup Groupp (4340+ members)

Bay Area Agile Leadership Network (3176+ members)

SB Agile Meetup [Santa Barbara] (450+ members)

Agile Professionals of Sacramento Meetup Group (255+ members)

Continuous deployment in 5 easy steps by Eric Ries, March 30, 2009


The Hardest Lessons for Startups to Learn by Paul Graham 2006 [Tags: Innovation, Startups, Entrepreneur]


"Kent Beck Suggests Skipping Testing for Very Short Term Projects" [tags: testing, unit testing, microtesting]

Alternatives to Agile/Scrum

"How Big Tech Runs Tech Projects and the Curious Absence of Scrum" [tags: other ways, alternatives]

"What Silicon Valley "Gets" about Software Engineers that Traditional Companies Do Not" [tags: other ways, alternatives]

Extreme Programming (XP) - Georgia Tech - Software Development Process 2/23/2015 [2:15]

Agile Scrum Overview-Extreme Programming (XP) 9/3/2016 [6:36]

What is Kanban? - Agile Coach (2019) by Atlassian [5:31]

Systems Thinking & Mapping

Causal-Loop Diagrams rainwater example

Wardley Mapping, to visualize structure over time. Good for strategy, process, investment, etc.
Short 90 sec:
Long 50 min:


Examples of people quickly accomplishing ambitious things together

"Write plain text files" by Derek Sivers 2022-03-02 [tags: documentation]

State of the Global Workplace, Gallup, 2017. Aggregate 2012-2016. Only 15% of people are actively engaged at work. 31% in the US/Canada; 10% in Western Europe

Top 15 Best GLOBAL BRANDS Ranking [video animation. 1:08]

Margaret Heffernan: Why it's time to forget the pecking order at work. (aka the Chicken Study)

INVEST: Learn about the INVEST model to help you write excellent User Stories for your Software System, by Bill Wake

Sample Definition of Done, by Peter Stevens, [with evolution definition]

The Three Faces of Done, by Peter Stevens

PRECOIL - How to get started with Assumptions Mapping. By David Bland

Hardware examples of using Scrum. Scrum Inc Articles by Jeff Sutherland, Joe Riddle, etc.

Weekly Nudge 48 - What we say matters! Fix the Environment, Not People, by David Marquet

The Impact of Agile. Quantified. CA Technologies (Formally Rally) [Data from 160,000 projects, 50,000 agile teams, and 13,000 active teams. Uses Software Development Performance Index (SDPI) developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at Carnegie Mellon University. SDPI measures performance across the key dimensions of Quality, Productivity, Predictability, and Responsiveness ]

Doodling in Math: Spirals, Fibonacci, and Being a Plant [1 of 3]

It's Not Just Standing Up: Patterns for Daily Standup Meetings, by Jason Yip

A Gallery of 16 Team Rooms and Charts collected by William Wake

Mapping of the Project Manager Role to the ScrumMaster Role

Apple's Steve Jobs using lean agile thinking, "...we're having to make guesses 4 5 6 months in advance about what the customer wants, and we're not smart enough to do that. I don't even think Einstein is smart enough to do that. So what we're going to do is get really simple, and start taking inventory out of those pipelines, so we can let the customer tell us what they want, and we can respond to it super fast..." See section 2:15-2:44 of "Apple Confidential - Steve Jobs on "Think Different" - Internal Meeting Sept. 23, 1997"

Scrum Pattern Community

Scrum Master Toolbox Podcast The podcast for Scrum Masters and Scrum practitioners>

10 New Rules for Brainstorming Without Alienating Introverts

More references and info on SourceCell site:

More references and info on ScrumAlliance site:

A Conference Call in Real Life

Alpha Dog Fallacy

littleBits: Become an Engineer With These High-Tech Building Blocks.

iPhone Click Wheel Software [Tags: Early Versions, Protoypes]